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ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant medication. it is a natural product. it is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, crohn’s disease, nephrotic syndrome, and in organ transplants to prevent rejection. it is also used as eye drops for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes).
common side effects include high blood pressure, headache, kidney problems, increased hair growth, and vomiting. other severe side effects include an increased risk of infection, liver problems, and an increased risk of lymphoma. blood levels of the medication should be checked to decrease the risk of side effects. use during pregnancy may result in preterm birth; however, ciclosporin does not appear to cause birth defects.
ciclosporin is believed to work by decreasing the function of lymphocytes. it does this by forming a complex with cyclophilin to block the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, which in turn decreases the production of inflammatory cytokines by t-lymphocytes.
ciclosporin was isolated in 1971 from the fungus tolypocladium inflatum and came into medical use in 1983. it is on the world health organization’s list of essential medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. in 2017, it was the 248th most commonly prescribed medication in the united states, with more than one million prescriptions that year.
ciclosporin is approved by the fda to treat and prevent graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation and to prevent rejection of kidney, heart, and liver transplants. it is also approved in the us for treating of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, persistent nummular keratitis following adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis, and as eye drops for treating dry eyes caused by sj?gren’s syndrome and meibomian gland dysfunction.
in addition to these indications, ciclosporin is also used in severe atopic dermatitis, kimura disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, chronic hives, acute systemic mastocytosis, and posterior or intermediate uveitis with noninfective cause.needed] it is also used, albeit infrequently, in severe rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases.needed]
ciclosporin has also been used in people with acute severe ulcerative colitis and hives that do not respond to treatment with steroids.
posaconazole, sold under the brand names noxafil and posanol is a triazole antifungal medication.
it was approved for medical use in the united states in september 2006, and is available as a generic medication.
posaconazole is used to treat invasive aspergillus and candida and fungal infections caused by scedosporium and fusarium species, which may occur in immunocompromised patients. it is also used for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis (opc), including opc refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole therapy.
it is also used to treat invasive infections by candida, mucor, and aspergillus species in severely immunocompromised patients.
clinical evidence for its utility in treatment of invasive disease caused by fusarium species (fusariosis) is limited.
it appears to be helpful in a mouse model of naegleriasis.
selamectin (trade names, revolt manufactured by aurora pharmaceutical & revolution manufactured by zoetis ) is a topical parasiticide and anthelminthic used on dogs and cats. it treats and prevents infections of heartworms, fleas, ear mites, sarcoptic mange (scabies), and certain types of ticks in dogs, and prevents heartworms, fleas, ear mites, hookworms, and roundworms in cats. it is structurally related to ivermectin and milbemycin. selamectin is not approved for human use.
the drug is applied topically. it is isopropyl alcohol based, packaged according to its varying dosage sizes and applied once monthly. it is not miscible in water.
selamectin disables parasites by activating glutamate-gated chloride channels at muscle synapses. selamectin activates the chloride channel without desensitization, allowing chloride ions to enter the nerve cells and causing neuromuscular paralysis, impaired muscular contraction, and eventual death.
the substance fights both internal and surface parasitic infection. absorbed into the body through the skin and hair follicles, it travels through the bloodstream, intestines, and sebaceous glands; parasites ingest the drug when they feed on the animal’s blood or secretions.
selamectin has been found to be safe and effective in a 2003 review.
selamectin has high safety ratings, with less than 1% of pets displaying side effectsneeded]. in cases where side-effects do occur, they most often include passing irritation or hair loss at the application site. symptoms beyond these (such as drooling, rapid breathing, lack of coordination, vomiting, or diarrhea) could be due to shock as a result of selamectin killing heartworms or other vulnerable parasites present at high levels in the bloodstreams of dogs.needed] this would be a reaction due to undetected or underestimated infections prior to using the medication, rather than an actual allergic reaction to the drug itself.
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[url=https://www.tcspharmaceuticals.com/pro/Doxorubicin_Hydrochloride_25316-40-9_usage_injection_price.html]doxorubicin[/url] , sold under the brand name adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer. this includes breast cancer, bladder cancer, kaposi’s sarcoma, lymphoma, and acute lymphocytic leukemia. it is often used together with other chemotherapy agents. doxorubicin is given by injection into a vein.
common side effects include hair loss, bone marrow suppression, vomiting, rash, and inflammation of the mouth. other serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, heart damage, tissue damage at the site of injection, radiation recall, and treatment-related leukemia. people often experience red discoloration of the urine for a few days. doxorubicin is in the anthracycline and antitumor antibiotic family of medications. it works in part by interfering with the function of dna.
doxorubicin was approved for medical use in the united states in 1974. it is on the world health organization’s list of essential medicines. versions that are pegylated and in liposomes are also available; however, are more expensive. doxorubicin was originally made from the bacterium streptomyces peucetius.
doxorubicin is commonly used to treat some leukemias and hodgkin’s lymphoma, as well as cancers of the bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovaries, thyroid, soft tissue sarcoma, multiple myeloma, and others. commonly used doxorubicin-containing regimens are ac (adriamycin, cyclophosphamide), tac (taxotere, ac), abvd (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine), beacopp, chop (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) and fac (5-fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide).
doxil (see below) is used primarily for the treatment of ovarian cancer where the disease has progressed or recurred after platinum-based chemotherapy, or for the treatment of aids-related kaposi’s sarcoma.
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